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Types Of Disability

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Mental Retardation + -

What is MENTAL RETARDATION (MR)?
A disability characterized by significant limitations both in intellectual functioning and in adaptive behavior as expressed in conceptual, social and practical adaptive skills. This disability originates before age 18. (American Association on Mental Retardation-AAMR; now called the American Association of Intellectual and Developmental Disorders)

IDEA definition of mental retardation:
Significantly sub-average general intellectual functioning, existing concurrently with deficits in adaptive behavior and manifested during the developmental period that adversely affects a child’s educational performance.

Mental Retardation is a generalized disorder, characterized by significantly impaired cognitive functioning and deficits in two or more adaptive behaviors that appears before adulthood. It has historically been defined as an Intelligence Quotient score under 70. Once focused almost entirely on cognition, the definition now includes both a component relating to mental functioning and one relating to individuals' functional skills in their environment. As a result, a person with a below-average intelligence quotient (BAIQ) may not be considered mentally retarded.

Mental Retardation – means sub average general intellectual functioning associated with mal-adaptive behavior, occurring in the developmental period. Mental retardation is divisible into the following four categories:
Mild retardation IQ - 50 - 70
Moderate retardation IQ - 35 - 49
Severe retardation IQ - 20 - 34
Profound retardation IQ under 20

Autism is a highly variable neuro-developmental disorder that first appears during infancy or childhood, and generally follows a steady course without remission. Overt symptoms gradually begin after the age of six months, become established by age two or three years, and tend to continue through adulthood, although often in more muted form. It is distinguished not by a single symptom, but by a characteristic triad of symptoms: impairments in social interaction; impairments in communication; and restricted interests and repetitive behavior. Other aspects, such as atypical eating, are also common but are not essential for diagnosis. Autism's individual symptoms occur in the general population and appear not to associate highly, without a sharp line separating pathologically severe from common traits.

Down syndrome (DS), also called Trisomy 21, is a condition in which extra genetic material causes delays in the way a child develops, both mentally and physically. It affects about 1 in every 800 babies.
The physical features and medical problems associated with Down syndrome can vary widely from child to child. While some kids with DS need a lot of medical attention, others lead healthy lives.
Though Down syndrome can't be prevented, it can be detected before a child is born.

What are the signs and symptoms of Down syndrome?
Even though Down syndrome may have few physical and mental features in common, symptoms can range from mild to severe. Usually, mental development and physical development are slower in them than in those without the condition.

Some common physical signs of Down syndrome includes:
Flat face with an upward slant to the eye, short neck, and abnormally shaped ears
Deep crease in the palm of the hand
White spots on the iris of the eye
Poor muscle tone, loose ligaments
Small hands and feet

What is developmental delay?
Developmental Delay is when your child does not attain their developmental milestones at the predictable times. It is an unending major or minor delay in the process of development. If your child is temporarily lagging behind, that is not called developmental delay. Delay can occur in one or many areas—for example, gross or fine motor, language, social, or thinking skills. Developmental Delay is most often a diagnosis made by a doctor based on strict guidelines. Usually, though, the parent is the first to notice that their child is not progressing at the same rate as other children the same age.

If you think your child may be “slow,” or “seems behind,” talk with your child's doctor about it. In some cases, your pediatrician might pick up a delay during an office visit. It will probably take several visits and possibly a referral to a developmental specialist to be sure that the delay is not just a temporary lag. Your child's doctor may use a set of screening tools during regular well-child visits.

Learning disability is a general term that describes specific kinds of learning problems. A learning disability can cause a person to have trouble learning and using certain skills. The skills most often affected are:
Reading
Writing
Listening
Speaking
Reasoning, and Doing maths

Learning disabilities (LD) vary from person to person. One person with learning disabilities may not have the same kind of learning problems as another person with learning disabilities. One person may have trouble with reading and writing. Another person with learning disabilities may have problems with understanding math. Still another person may have trouble in each of these areas, as well as with understanding what people are saying.

What is epilepsy?
Epilepsy is a neurological condition caused by sudden brief changes in the brain’s electrical balance. When there are excess electrical discharges in the brain, seizures occur. Seizures can alter awareness, physical movements, consciousness or actions. Seizures generally last from a few seconds to a few minutes.

Epilepsy is often called a “seizure disorder.” Both terms are used to describe recurring seizures.Epilepsy is not a disease, mental illness or a sign of low intelligence. It is not contagious. Epilepsy is generally a chronic and/or lifelong condition.

Children with epilepsy usually are of normal intelligence, but some do not do well academically. When this happens, it is important to find out why. Neurological impairment, frequent seizures, or adverse effects of seizure medicines can affect school performance. If a child is doing well in school, there is no reason to worry about the effects of epilepsy on learning. If the teacher reports problems or if parents become aware that their child's performance is slipping, it may be worthwhile to consider interventions.

What is CEREBRAL PALSY (CP)?
"Cerebral palsy" means a group of non-progressive conditions of a person characterised by abnormal motor control posture resulting from brain insult or injuries occurring in the pre-natal, peri-natal or infant period of development; Cerebral palsy (CP) is an umbrella term encompassing a group of non-progressive, non-contagious motor conditions that cause physical disability in human development, chiefly in the various areas of body movement.

“Cerebral” means brain. “Palsy” means a disorder of movement. CP refers to a group of non-progressive neuromuscular problems of varying severity. CP is damage to the brain, primarily to the part of the brain that controls motor functions. However other parts of the brain may also be affected. In such cases the person affected has more than one disability. The extent of the damage varies from person to person. Mild disability might mean fine motor skills, like using scissors or writing, are difficult. Severe disability can mean poor movement of all four limbs, the trunk and neck. The child may even have difficulty in swallowing.